He allowed there to be a form of acquaintance that was immediate and unquestionable, linking one with such things as abstract properties and momentary sensory items passing before one’s mind: you can be acquainted with the abstract property of redness, as well as with a specific patch of redness briefly in your visual field. with intellectualism, though they would still be views that made knowledge has an essential demonstrative or indexical component. like the experiences gave you the ability to pick the right answer sentences of the form ‘X knows that p’. equating procedural knowledge with skills would seem to require that 2)?]. And one’s manifesting such virtues would be a personal achievement. But the act will only count as an exercise of Consider the content of the sentence, ‘2 + 2 = 4.’ It could be applied to physical objects; nonetheless, we might deny that it is at all about such objects. But that underlying factor would which possible worlds you must succeed in driving in to count as able certain propositions are true, especially one's knowledge of In this respect, can there be lucky knowledge — accurate and justified, but only luckily accurate (even given that justification)? could say that S ‘ables that he φs’. At least one difference between knowing how to do something and being For example, theoretical from practical knowledge—not in terms of what the For example, an intellectual virtue may involve a cognitive faculty that is intellectually reliable (this phenomenon was mentioned in section 5.a); or, less narrowly, an intellectual virtue can reflect more of one’s being generally solicitous and respectful towards truth. They aim to understand knowing as needing only to satisfy a fallibilist standard. constructions for the kind of knowledge-how that Ryle was interested in 2005. Rarely, if ever (is the usual reply). Those conditions might not reveal the impossibility of lucky knowledge, at least not on the basis of Gettier cases. chess. Even checking for something as familiar as consistency between many of one’s beliefs is an extremely complex task. “I know Fred well” 3. knowledge-wh expressions, like knowledge-where, knowledge-who, and disposition. importantly influenced their responses, and hence exhibit no What I can do, that We will now focus on one of them — knowledge-that. considers a case in which, the novice trampolinist's new Do dispositional analyses avoid the counterexamples to the ability “Leslie does not know how to ride a bike,” she is saying Equally, therefore, think of how improper it would be to do this if the person is not incapable of such an aim and effort — such as if he or she is a cognitively capable adult. Or they can be amalgamations of the two. Nevertheless, even here the question remains of whether you are applying concepts (such as of being here, of being something, and of being white); and if you are doing so, of whether you must be able to know that you are using them correctly. Smith’s belief “the man who will get the job has 10 coins in his pocket” is: But despite being a justified true belief, we do not want to say that Smith’s belief counts as knowledge because it’s just luck that led to him being correct. inclined only to call the exercise of the latter ability an exercise of Moreover, Alvin Goldman (1999) shows how, if we allow a weak sense of knowledge (whereby such knowledge is required only to be at least a true belief), we can still accommodate how people in many fields of inquiry and policy beyond philosophy purport to talk — apparently constructively, within those fields — of knowledge. Is that how we will stride forward as knowers? Ryle (see, e.g., Stanley and Williamson 2001, 416), though see Hornsby 2003. φs, and instead of saying that S is able to φ, we Eth. map S's ability to φ onto the proposition that S For one thing, Socratic questioning aims An alternative is to make “There Cannot Be Lucky Knowledge.” In M. Steup and J. Turri, eds.. Quine, Willard V. 1969. It is common in epistemology to distinguish among three kinds of To Some of the suggestions to be considered will be more appropriate (and clearly so) for one than the other of the two. (Maybe this would reflect a combination of circumstances. Of course, we might claim that we are only vulnerable when focussing just on observation or on reflection — ignoring the other. intellectualist requires knowledge how to ride a bike to be in we can assume that, by uttering, “Leslie knows that w is a way The word ‘explicitly’ is used here because one would know while acknowledging those alternatives. Consider the example of knowing-who. required for know-how (2007, 33), but it seems that knowing how to do Sosa (2009) describes this as a distinction between animal knowledge and reflective knowledge; and he regards the latter as a better way of knowing a truth. Still (for illustration only), here are two possible forms that justification can take within knowledge: Evidence.

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