When separating proteins strictly by size, why is exposure to SDS first required? What is the advantage of microarray analysis over northern blot analysis in monitoring changes in geneexpression? $E .$ coli cells, Which technique is used to separate protein fragments based on size?a. Other molecular tools, such as restriction enzymes and plasmids obtained from microorganisms, allow scientists to insert genes from humans or other organisms into microorganisms. Fill in the BlankThe application of genomics to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of drugs on the basis of information froman individual’s genomic sequence is called ____________. Genetic engineering, also called genetic modification, is the direct manipulation of an organism’s genome using biotechnology. Southern blotc. C. trachomatis causes chlamydia, the most common sexually transmitted disease in the United States, and trachoma, the world’s leading cause of preventable blindness. Suppose you are working in a molecular biology laboratory and are having difficulty performing the PCR successfully. Fill in the BlankThe process of introducing DNA molecules into eukaryotic cells is called ________. Gene Regulation 3. What are some advantages of cloning human genes into bacteria to treat human diseases caused by specificprotein deficiencies? Modified plasmids or viruses often are the messengers to deliver genetic material to the body’s cells, resulting in the production of substances that should correct the illness. biotechnology: The use of living organisms (especially microorganisms) in industrial, agricultural, medical, and other technological applications. Such as antibiotics drugs, vaccines and hormones to treat various of disease. ; cloning: The production of a cloned embryo by transplanting the nucleus of a somatic cell into an ovum. True/FalseIn agarose gel electrophoresis, DNA will be attracted to the negative electrode. northern blot analysisd. Microbial Genetics 1. At what point can the FDA halt the development or use of gene therapy?a. cheaper but less effective than pig insulin for treating diabetes.d. Microbial Genetics 1. 454 sequencing, All of the following techniques involve hybridization between single-stranded nucleic acid molecules except:a. You decide to double-check the PCR protocol programmed into the thermal cycler and discover that the annealing temperature was programmed to be $65^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$ instead of $50^{\circ} \mathrm{C}$, as you had intended. Watson and Crick’s identification of the structure of DNA in 1953 was the seminal event in the field of genetic engineering. DNA ligase, All of the following are processes used to introduce DNA molecules into bacterial cells except:a. transformationb. Legal. Many of the molecular tools discovered in recent decades have been produced using prokaryotic microbes. Drawbacks of gene therapy are that sometimes the person’s immune system destroys the cells that have been genetically altered, and also that it is hard to get the genetic material into enough cells to have the desired effect. Why? engineered to be more effective than human insulin. Sometimes cells are genetically altered inside the body; other times scientists modify them in the laboratory and return them to the patient’s body. Missed the LibreFest? a combination of $E$. As an example, the thermal cycler in Figure 1 is used to perform a diagnostic technique called the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which relies on DNA polymerase enzymes from thermophilic bacteria. Missed the LibreFest? microarray analysis, The science of studying the entire collection of mRNA molecules produced by cells, allowing scientiststo monitor differences in gene expression patterns between cells, is called:a. genomicsb. The Microbial Genetics Construction Kit (Jungck & Calley, 1986) was developed to help students understand auxanography, complementation mapping, and point mutation mapping.Its tool set includes replica plating using minimal media or up to 25 different nutrients (amino acids, nucleobase, vitamins, etc.) Genes may be removed, or “knocked out”, using a nuclease. Fill in the BlankThe PCR step during which the double-stranded template molecule becomes single-stranded is called_____________. Since the 1990s, gene therapy has been used in clinical trials to treat diseases and conditions such as AIDS, cystic fibrosis, cancer, and high cholesterol. conjugation, The enzyme that uses RNA as a template to producea DNA copy is called:a. a restriction enzymeb. UPM Microbiology Undergraduates, batch 16/17. proteomicsd. Mass quantities of the protein can be produced by growing the transformed organism in bioreactors using fermentation, then purifying the protein. Explain your answer. These are just a few of the numerous applications of microbial genetics that we will explore in this chapter. after manufacturing and marketing of the approved therapyd. What effects would this mistake have on the PCR reaction? Chapter 8: Modern Applications of Microbial Genetics Figure 8.1 A thermal cycler (left) is used during a polymerase chain reaction (PCR).PCR amplifies the number of copies of DNA and can assist in diagnosis of infections caused by microbes that are difficult to culture, such as Chlamydia trachomatis (right).C. True/FalseRNA interference does not influence the sequence of genomic DNA. Key Terms. Genetic engineering means the manipulation of organisms to make useful products and it has broad applications. Briefly describe the risks associated with somatic cell gene therapy. Fill in the Blank. Genetics - Genetics - Microbial genetics: Microorganisms were generally ignored by the early geneticists because they are small in size and were thought to lack variable traits and the sexual reproduction necessary for a mixing of genes from different organisms. Allied Health Microbiology by OpenStax is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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