According to Kristeller and others (including Rancière), the answer is yes. © 2005-19 1902 Encyclopedia. Lecture series on Aesthetics and the Philosophy of Art. These theories invite an objection related to how the first art work became accepted. ↩, Cf. Art, the story goes, becomes a domain of pure, formal contemplation (and optimally the contemplation of form, aka beauty). (Aristotle compares tragedy to a zōion that is animated by a psuchē—its praxis—for this very reason. If this is right, then to appreciate Aristotle’s view of tragic pleasure we need to ask how tragedy engages our consciousness of ourselves as living. (§1, 5:204), The first example of beauty in the Critique of Judgment—a provocatively unattractive one at that—is of a building’s representation to the mind. Denis Dutton’s lecture ends with these words: “Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? On the “technique of nature” (the a priori principle of subjective purposiveness and of rule-bound systematicity) that we heuristically smuggle into our view of nature to permit it to be experienced and construed at all, see CJ FI I, 20:200; FI II, 20:205; FI VII, 20:220; and CJ §23, 5:246. After all, aesthetics is a field of inquiry that we normally associate, since Kant, with art and literature. ↩, E.g., CJ §12, 5:227, where Kant banishes only the utility (outer or inner) of the object. That this is so guarantees that we, as it were, grope our way meaningfully through the world before we come to know and understand it, and that we can never fully grasp (know or understand) the grounds by which we do so. Plato insists that the youth should be educated on the concept of beauty so that they are able to reject any manifestations of ugliness sold as beauty. [7] But this is to miss an essential feature of Kant’s theory—the particular role that is allotted to feeling. Compared to theories on the nature of art that designate an essential criterion, the family-resemblance (or cluster) theory offers the possibility of being more inclusive; work rejected by other theories can be considered art by family resemblance. The language of aesthetic description is our way of painting the world in familiar colors and hues. See John Dewey, Art as Experience, ed. One of the most important foundational issues about ancient aesthetics is the question of whether the very concept of ‘ancient aesthetics’ is possible. For the Reinhard Brandt and Werner Stark [Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1997], 1068). (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, (2012). One thing I want to try to do below will be to suggest that aesthetic considerations can never be contained by purely aesthetic considerations; that art and aesthetics are such powerful forces that they oblige us to broaden our views of their roles even when we least want to do so or when we least suspect that this is what we’ve done. form and the problem of extracting his thought from its Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (SEP). It includes wonder, the marvelous, the paradoxical, the useful, the astonishing, the vibrant, the colorful, the brilliant, the grand, the sublime, and sometimes even the beautiful. ↩, EN 10.5.1174a30–32, 1176a3–4 (trans. Indeed, another name for this congruence, viewed in and of itself, is “beauty.”, In other words, Kant’s position is that our fundamental posture toward the world and the world’s posture toward us are aesthetic. . According to Aristotle beauty is above the useful and the necessary. Aristotle’s Breakfast, a platform to discuss topical issue from a philosophical angle, takes place every month at Strathmore University. But ­ultimately, both beauty and sublimity reaffirm the coherence of the world they register, and of the mind’s own vibrant destiny. It becomes a subtopic of philosophy. The student is inclined to feel with 570: “All enlivening by the mind is inner and enlarges it [“the feeling of life”] entirely; all enlivening by the body enlivens only a part. This last point cannot be emphasized enough. The question to ask about poets and painters is whether they are describing an aesthetic experience or a feeling of life. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), 49; cf. For the more general point, see R. G. Collingwood, Outlines of a Philosophy of Art (London: Oxford University Press, Humphrey Milford, 1925): “Sublimity is beauty which forces itself upon our mind, beauty which strikes us as it were against our will. In the bare registration of the appearance as purposive alone, I am not mindful of any further purpose. The celebrated passage in the Poetics, where he declares poetry to be more philosophical and serious a matter (spoudaiteron) than philosophy, brings out the advance of Aristotle on his predecessor. 1784]): “Everything that promotes or enlarges the feeling of life [das Gefühl des Lebens] is pleasing,” which is to say, whatever “favors the exercise and use of the faculties [Kräfte]” (of any kind, including mental, above all the free will, which, when actualized, “has the greatest [amount / degree of] life” [hat das größte Leben]) and, above all, whatever contributes to “harmonization” or “coherence” (zusammenstimmung [sic]) of, presumably, inner and outer factors (15:253, no. ↩, Cf. It should be noticed that the habit of the Greek mind, in estimating the value of moral nobleness and elevation of character by their power of gratifying and impressing a spectator, gave rise to a certain ambiguity in the meaning of to kalon, which accounts for the prominence the Greek thinkers gave to the connection between the Beautiful and the Good or morally Worthy. All three faculties are active in producing aesthetic judgments in every aesthetic judgment, ensuring that the various components of the mind will achieve their sought-for harmonization no matter what obstacles might lie in their path. in the light of aspects which nature of itself does not afford us in experience, either for sense or the understanding, and of employing it accordingly in behalf of, and as a sort of schema for, the supersensible.” A case could be made for labeling poetry here a source of either beauty or sublimity, an equivocalness or, rather, double-barreled judgment that we find elsewhere in CJ. ↩, Elaine Scarry, On Beauty and Being Just (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999), 24–25. But that is a matter of nomenclature and is neither here nor there. Jonathan Barnes, in Jonathan Barnes, ed., The Complete Works of Aristotle: The Revised Oxford Translation, 2 vols. admittedly be to recompose the pieces which originally Once we detach the labels from objects, we are free to examine the way in which these ascriptions come about—which is exactly what Kant does. For a general discussion of the connections that run from Burckhardt to Warburg, see Werner Hofmann, review of L’image survivante, by Georges Didi-Huberman, Kunstchronik: Monatsschrift für Kunstwissenschaft, Museumswesen und Denkmalpflege 55, no. . . [18] But in one way no aesthetic experience is truly expansive but is rather conservative and self-congratulatory: experiences merely affirm the given nature of the mind. Kant then adds this clarification: in such cases, “the representation is referred wholly to the subject, and what is more to its feeling of life [das Lebensgefühl]—under the name of the feeling of pleasure or displeasure.”.

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