Your email address will not be published. Hi Mr. Sibley. Donate to support ABC's conservation mission! Common Yellowthroats are easy to find during spring and summer in much of North America. Subspecies taxonomy is confusing (Pyle 1997, Guzy and Ritchison 1999). The Common Yellowthroat is second only to the Song Sparrow as the commonest bird of San Diego County’s riparian woodland. I found a mistake in the list: the genus Peucaea. 2004). However, a female’s mating calls often attract other males, and she may mate with them behind her mate’s back. Listen for its ringing The Masked Yellowthroat, Geothlypis aequinoctialis, is a New World warbler. Slate Creek Press, Bolinas, CA. Howell, S. N. G. and S. Webb. The TOS handbook of Texas birds. name for all the polytypic (that are field-discernable in your view) vagrants. 2004. Your yard could attract Common Yellowthroats if it is fairly large (yellowthroat territories are sometimes as small as 0.5 acre) and features dense or tangled, low-growing grasses and other vegetation. I believe there would be a lot more support for Crossbill splitting if it was only into two or three species. e-mail: The distinctive Chiriqui form in the highlands of Costa Rica and western Panama is further separated from its relatives to the east by the Andes Mountains. I changed some English and Scientific names based on comments (Special thanks to Richard Klim at BirdForum for tracking down priority names for a bunch of subspecies). Subspecific information 13 subspecies Geothlypis trichas trichas (se Canada and e USA. Hopefully they will change this name soon, because as it stands it doesn’t work for a substantial portion of the species’ range, and birders in Asia are not going to call their pipits “American”. Look for these furtive, yellow-and-olive warblers skulking through tangled vegetation, often at the edges of marshes and wetlands. The Brownsville Common Yellowthroat (geothlypis trichas insperata) is an endemic subspecies of the Common Yellowthroat that is restricted to the southern half of Cameron County. I hadn’t even considered Wayne’s Black-throated Green, but I will definitely check it out. I really enjoy learning and looking for these variations in the field. Scaled Quail (Texan castanogastris vs. the rest) USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel MD (Web site, The genus name Geothlypis is from Ancient Greek geo, "ground", and thlupis, an unidentified small bird; thlypis is often used in the scientific names of New World warblers. I would like to share with you some of my observations regarding Western Gull and Glaucous-Winged Gull: Among the subspecies of WEGU, the slightly paler northern birds also seem to average a bit larger. Yellowthroats are vocal birds, and both their witchety-witchety-witchety songs and distinctive call notes help reveal the presence of this, one of our most numerous warblers. Can you help? Lockwood and Freeman (2014) list four subspecies breeding in Texas. The bird life of Texas. I was wondering, what is Ward’s Heron? I don’t know to what extent these forms differ. The western form of Solitary Sa-dpiper (Sandpiper) is misspelled in the list. It is only provided for educational and entertainment purposes, and is in no way intended as a substitute for It has a number of separate resident breeding populations in Central and South America, some of which may be considered to form separate species. For most species you’ll want to dig deeper into the literature that is cited in those books. The Masked Yellowthroat may also be found in other areas with dense shrub, but is less common in drier habitats. Had an influx of distinctly different darker-mantled, thinner-billed GW’s arrive after a Siberian cold front arrived in North Vancouver BC. Numenius phaeopus phaeopus should be suffixed “(group”) since it includes alboaxillaris. None of this is conclusive of course but just some observations from a long time gull enthusiast. There are significant racial variations in the male plumage (see Taxonomy). Eggs have been found from April 9 to June 29; TBBA observers found a pair on a nest May 4 and recently fledged young at another site that month. I debated including some of those other species, especially Botteri’s Sparrow and Great-tailed Grackle. Each male normally has only one mate in his territory during a breeding season. Discover them all with Birds of the World. subspecies unassigned, Cackling Goose (Pacific) – Branta hutchinsii minima *, Cackling Goose (Aleutian) – Branta hutchinsii leucopareia, Cackling Goose (Richardson’s) – Branta hutchinsii hutchinsii group *, Canada Goose (Dusky) – Branta canadensis occidentalis group, Canada Goose (Typical) – Branta canadensis canadensis group, Canada Goose (Lesser) – Branta canadensis parvipes, Tundra Swan (Whistling) – Cygnus columbianus columbianus, Tundra Swan (Bewick’s) – Cygnus columbianus bewickii, Mallard (Northern) – Anas platyrhynchos platyrhynchos group *, Mallard (Mexican) – Anas platyrhynchos diazi *, Eastern Spot-billed Duck – Anas zonorhyncha, White-cheeked Pintail – Anas bahamensis, Green-winged Teal (Common or Eurasian) – Anas crecca crecca group, Green-winged Teal (American) – Anas crecca carolinensis, Steller’s Eider – Polysticta stelleri, Spectacled Eider – Somateria fischeri, Common Eider (Pacific) – Somateria mollissima v-nigra *, Common Eider (Maritime Canada) – Somateria mollissima dresseri, Common Eider (East Arctic) – Somateria mollissima borealis, Common Eider (Hudson Bay) – Somateria mollissima sedentaria, Harlequin Duck – Histrionicus histrionicus, Labrador Duck – Camptorhynchus labradorius, Surf Scoter – Melanitta perspicillata, White-winged Scoter – Melanitta fusca, White-winged Scoter (Stejneger’s or Siberian) – Melanitta fusca stejnegeri, White-winged Scoter (American) – Melanitta fusca deglandi, Common Goldeneye – Bucephala clangula, Barrow’s Goldeneye – Bucephala islandica, Hooded Merganser – Lophodytes cucullatus, Common Merganser (Goosander or Eurasian) – Mergus merganser merganser group *, Common Merganser (American) – Mergus merganser americanus *, Red-breasted Merganser – Mergus serrator, California Quail – Callipepla californica, Northern Bobwhite – Colinus virginianus, Northern Bobwhite (Eastern) – Colinus virginianus virginianus group *, Northern Bobwhite (Masked) – Colinus virginianus ridgwayi *, Montezuma Quail – Cyrtonyx montezumae, Himalayan Snowcock – Tetraogallus himalayensis, Ring-necked Pheasant – Phasianus colchicus, Greater Sage-Grouse – Centrocercus urophasianus, Gunnison Sage-Grouse – Centrocercus minimus, Spruce Grouse – Falcipennis canadensis, Spruce Grouse (Taiga) – Falcipennis canadensis canadensis group *, Spruce Grouse (Franklin’s or Pacific) – Falcipennis canadensis franklinii group *, White-tailed Ptarmigan – Lagopus leucura, Sooty Grouse – Dendragapus fuliginosus, Sharp-tailed Grouse – Tympanuchus phasianellus, Greater Prairie-Chicken – Tympanuchus cupido, Greater Prairie-Chicken (Northern) – Tympanuchus cupido pinnatus, Greater Prairie-Chicken (Texas or Attwater’s) – Tympanuchus cupido attwateri, Lesser Prairie-Chicken – Tympanuchus pallidicinctus, Wild Turkey (Eastern ) – Meleagris gallopavo silvestris, Wild Turkey (Merriam’s or Southwestern) – Meleagris gallopavo merriami, Pied-billed Grebe – Podilymbus podiceps, Red-necked Grebe – Podiceps grisegena, Western Grebe – Aechmophorus occidentalis, American Flamingo – Phoenicopterus ruber, Yellow-nosed Albatross – Thalassarche chlororhynchos, Shy Albatross (White-capped) – Thalassarche cauta cauta *, Shy Albatross (Salvin’s) – Thalassarche cauta salvini *, Black-browed Albatross – Thalassarche melanophris, Light-mantled Albatross – Phoebetria palpebrata, Wandering Albatross – Diomedea exulans, Laysan Albatross – Phoebastria immutabilis, Black-footed Albatross – Phoebastria nigripes, Short-tailed Albatross – Phoebastria albatrus, Northern Fulmar (Atlantic) – Fulmarus glacialis glacialis group *, Northern Fulmar (Pacific) – Fulmarus glacialis rodgersii *, Great-winged Petrel – Pterodroma macroptera, Herald Petrel – Pterodroma arminjoniana, Mottled Petrel – Pterodroma inexpectata, Black-capped Petrel – Pterodroma hasitata, Hawaiian or Galapagos Petrel – Pterodroma sandwichensis or phaeopygia, Stejneger’s Petrel – Pterodroma longirostris, White-chinned Petrel – Procellaria aequinoctialis, Parkinson’s Petrel – Procellaria parkinsoni, Streaked Shearwater – Calonectris leucomelas, Cory’s Shearwater – Calonectris diomedea, Cory’s Shearwater (Mediterranean or Scopoli’s) – Calonectris diomedea diomedea, Cory’s Shearwater (Atlantic) – Calonectris diomedea borealis, Cape Verde Shearwater – Calonectris edwardsii, Pink-footed Shearwater – Puffinus creatopus, Flesh-footed Shearwater – Puffinus carneipes, Wedge-tailed Shearwater – Puffinus pacificus, Buller’s Shearwater – Puffinus bulleri, Short-tailed Shearwater – Puffinus tenuirostris, Townsend’s Shearwater – Puffinus auricularis, Black-vented Shearwater – Puffinus opisthomelas, Little Shearwater – Puffinus assimilis, Audubon’s Shearwater – Puffinus lherminieri, Wilson’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanites oceanicus, White-faced Storm-Petrel – Pelagodroma marina, European Storm-Petrel – Hydrobates pelagicus, Black-bellied Storm-Petrel – Fregetta tropica, Fork-tailed Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma furcata, Ringed Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma hornbyi, Leach’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma leucorhoa, Swinhoe’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma monorhis, Ashy Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma homochroa, Band-rumped Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma castro, Wedge-rumped Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma tethys, Black Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma melania, Tristram’s Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma tristrami, Least Storm-Petrel – Oceanodroma microsoma, White-tailed Tropicbird – Phaethon lepturus, Red-billed Tropicbird – Phaethon aethereus, Red-tailed Tropicbird – Phaethon rubricauda, Magnificent Frigatebird – Fregata magnificens, Brown Booby (Eastern Pacific or Brewster’s) – Sula leucogaster brewsteri, Brown Booby (Atlantic) – Sula leucogaster leucogaster, Brandt’s Cormorant – Phalacrocorax penicillatus, Neotropic Cormorant – Phalacrocorax brasilianus, Double-crested Cormorant – Phalacrocorax auritus, Great Cormorant – Phalacrocorax carbo, Red-faced Cormorant – Phalacrocorax urile, Pelagic Cormorant – Phalacrocorax pelagicus, American White Pelican – Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Brown Pelican – Pelecanus occidentalis, American Bittern – Botaurus lentiginosus, Bare-throated Tiger-Heron – Tigrisoma mexicanum, Great Blue Heron (Typical) – Ardea herodias herodias group, Great Blue Heron (Great White) – Ardea herodias occidentalis, Intermediate Egret – Mesophoyx intermedia, Cattle Egret (Western or African) – Bubulcus ibis ibis group, Cattle Egret (Eastern or Asian) – Bubulcus ibis coromandus, Black-crowned Night-Heron – Nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron (Eurasian) – Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax, Black-crowned Night-Heron (American) – Nycticorax nycticorax hoactli, Yellow-crowned Night-Heron – Nyctanassa violacea, California Condor – Gymnogyps californianus, Hook-billed Kite – Chondrohierax uncinatus, Swallow-tailed Kite – Elanoides forficatus, Mississippi Kite – Ictinia mississippiensis, Bald Eagle – Haliaeetus leucocephalus, White-tailed Eagle – Haliaeetus albicilla, Steller’s Sea-Eagle – Haliaeetus pelagicus, Sharp-shinned Hawk – Accipiter striatus, Northern Goshawk – Accipiter gentilis, Crane Hawk – Geranospiza caerulescens, Common Black-Hawk – Buteogallus anthracinus, Red-shouldered Hawk (Eastern) – Buteo lineatus lineatus group, Red-shouldered Hawk (Florida) – Buteo lineatus extimus, Red-shouldered Hawk (California) – Buteo lineatus elegans, Broad-winged Hawk – Buteo platypterus, White-tailed Hawk – Buteo albicaudatus, Red-tailed Hawk (Western) – Buteo jamaicensis calurus group, Red-tailed Hawk (Eastern) – Buteo jamaicensis borealis group, Red-tailed Hawk (Harlan’s) – Buteo jamaicensis harlani, Red-tailed Hawk (Krider’s) – Buteo jamaicensis kriderii, Red-tailed Hawk (Southwestern) – Buteo jamaicensis fuertesi, Collared Forest-Falcon – Micrastur semitorquatus, Red-footed Falcon – Falco vespertinus, Merlin (American Taiga) – Falco columbarius columbarius, Merlin (Prairie or Richardson’s) – Falco columbarius richardsonii, Merlin (Pacific or Black) – Falco columbarius suckleyi, Yellow Rail – Coturnicops noveboracensis, Clapper Rail (Eastern) – Rallus longirostris crepitans group, Clapper Rail (California) – Rallus longirostris obsoletus group, Paint-billed Crake – Neocrex erythrops, Purple Swamphen – Porphyrio porphyrio, Purple Gallinule – Porphyrio martinica, Sandhill Crane (Lesser or Northern) – Grus canadensis canadensis, Sandhill Crane (Greater or Southern) – Grus canadensis pratensis group, Double-striped Thick-knee – Burhinus bistriatus, Black-bellied Plover – Pluvialis squatarola, European Golden-Plover – Pluvialis apricaria, American Golden-Plover – Pluvialis dominica, Pacific Golden-Plover – Pluvialis fulva, Lesser Sand-Plover – Charadrius mongolus, Greater Sand-Plover – Charadrius leschenaultii, Collared Plover – Charadrius collaris, Snowy Plover – Charadrius alexandrinus, Wilson’s Plover – Charadrius wilsonia, Common Ringed Plover – Charadrius hiaticula, Semipalmated Plover – Charadrius semipalmatus, Little Ringed Plover – Charadrius dubius, Mountain Plover – Charadrius montanus, Eurasian Dotterel – Charadrius morinellus, Eurasian Oystercatcher – Haematopus ostralegus, American Oystercatcher – Haematopus palliatus, American Oystercatcher (Atlantic) – Haematopus palliatus palliatus, American Oystercatcher (Pacific) – Haematopus palliatus frazari, Black Oystercatcher – Haematopus bachmani, Black-winged Stilt – Himantopus himantopus, Black-necked Stilt – Himantopus mexicanus, American Avocet – Recurvirostra americana, Common Sandpiper – Actitis hypoleucos, Spotted Sandpiper – Actitis macularius, Solitary Sandpiper – Tringa solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper (Eastern) – Tringa solitaria solitaria, Solitary Sandpiper (Western) – Tringa solitaria cinnamomea, Gray-tailed Tattler – Tringa brevipes, Greater Yellowlegs – Tringa melanoleuca, Willet (Eastern) – Tringa semipalmata semipalmata *, Willet (Western) – Tringa semipalmata inornata *, Upland Sandpiper – Bartramia longicauda, Whimbrel (European) – Numenius phaeopus phaeopus *, Whimbrel (Asian) – Numenius phaeopus variegatus *, Whimbrel (American) – Numenius phaeopus hudsonicus *, Bristle-thighed Curlew – Numenius tahitiensis, Far Eastern Curlew – Numenius madagascariensis, Slender-billed Curlew – Numenius tenuirostris, Long-billed Curlew – Numenius americanus, Black-tailed Godwit (European) – Limosa limosa limosa, Black-tailed Godwit (Icelandic) – Limosa limosa islandica, Black-tailed Godwit (Asian) – Limosa limosa melanuroides, Bar-tailed Godwit (European or Western) – Limosa lapponica lapponica, Bar-tailed Godwit (Asian or Eastern) – Limosa lapponica baueri, Black Turnstone – Arenaria melanocephala, Semipalmated Sandpiper – Calidris pusilla, Red-necked Stint – Calidris ruficollis, Temminck’s Stint – Calidris temminckii, White-rumped Sandpiper – Calidris fuscicollis, Pectoral Sandpiper – Calidris melanotos, Sharp-tailed Sandpiper – Calidris acuminata, Rock Sandpiper – Calidris ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper (Pribilof) – Calidris ptilocnemis ptilocnemis, Rock Sandpiper (Aleutian/Mainland) – Calidris ptilocnemis couesi group, Dunlin (American) – Calidris alpina pacifica group *, Dunlin (Greenland) – Calidris alpina arctica group *, Curlew Sandpiper – Calidris ferruginea, Stilt Sandpiper – Calidris himantopus, Spoon-billed Sandpiper – Eurynorhynchus pygmeus, Broad-billed Sandpiper – Limicola falcinellus, Buff-breasted Sandpiper – Tryngites subruficollis, Short-billed Dowitcher – Limnodromus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher (Atlantic) – Limnodromus griseus griseus, Short-billed Dowitcher (Central or Henderson’s) – Limnodromus griseus hendersoni, Pacific Short-billed Dowitcher – Limnodromus griseus caurinus, Long-billed Dowitcher – Limnodromus scolopaceus, Eurasian Woodcock – Scolopax rusticola, Wilson’s Phalarope – Phalaropus tricolor, Red-necked Phalarope – Phalaropus lobatus, Red Phalarope – Phalaropus fulicarius, Oriental Pratincole – Glareola maldivarum, Swallow-tailed Gull – Creagrus furcatus, Black-legged Kittiwake – Rissa tridactyla, Red-legged Kittiwake – Rissa brevirostris, Bonaparte’s Gull – Chroicocephalus philadelphia, Gray-hooded Gull – Chroicocephalus cirrocephalus, Black-headed Gull – Chroicocephalus ridibundus, Laughing Gull – Leucophaeus atricilla, Franklin’s Gull – Leucophaeus pipixcan, Black-tailed Gull – Larus crassirostris, Mew Gull (European or Common Gull) – Larus canus canus group *, Mew Gull (Kamchatka or Siberian) – Larus canus kamtschatschensis, Mew Gull (Short-billed or American) – Larus canus brachyrhynchus *, Ring-billed Gull – Larus delawarensis, Herring Gull (American or Smithsonian) – Larus argentatus smithsonianus, Herring Gull (Vega or Siberian) – Larus argentatus vegae, Herring Gull (European) – Larus argentatus argentatus group, Yellow-legged Gull – Larus michahellis, Lesser Black-backed Gull – Larus fuscus, Slaty-backed Gull – Larus schistisagus, Glaucous-winged Gull – Larus glaucescens, Great Black-backed Gull – Larus marinus, Bridled Tern – Onychoprion anaethetus, Aleutian Tern – Onychoprion aleuticus, Gull-billed Tern – Gelochelidon nilotica, White-winged Tern – Chlidonias leucopterus, Common Tern (Western or American/European) – Sterna hirundo hirundo, Common Tern (Asian) – Sterna hirundo longipennis, Sandwich Tern – Thalasseus sandvicensis, Sandwich Tern (American or Cabot’s) – Thalasseus sandvicensis acuflavidus, Sandwich Tern (Cayenne Tern) – Thalasseus sandvicensis eurygnathus, South Polar Skua – Stercorarius maccormicki, Pomarine Jaeger – Stercorarius pomarinus, Parasitic Jaeger – Stercorarius parasiticus, Long-tailed Jaeger – Stercorarius longicaudus, Black Guillemot (Arctic) – Cepphus grylle mandtii, Black Guillemot (Atlantic) – Cepphus grylle arcticus group, Long-billed Murrelet – Brachyramphus perdix, Marbled Murrelet – Brachyramphus marmoratus, Kittlitz’s Murrelet – Brachyramphus brevirostris, Xantus’s Murrelet – Synthliboramphus hypoleucus, Xantus’ Murrelet (Northern or Scripps’s) – Synthliboramphus hypoleucus scrippsi *, Xantus’ Murrelet (Southern) – Synthliboramphus hypoleucus hypoleucus *, Craveri’s Murrelet – Synthliboramphus craveri, Ancient Murrelet – Synthliboramphus antiquus, Cassin’s Auklet – Ptychoramphus aleuticus, Rhinoceros Auklet – Cerorhinca monocerata, Horned Puffin – Fratercula corniculata, Scaly-naped Pigeon – Patagioenas squamosa, White-crowned Pigeon – Patagioenas leucocephala, Red-billed Pigeon – Patagioenas flavirostris, Band-tailed Pigeon – Patagioenas fasciata, European Turtle-Dove – Streptopelia turtur, Oriental Turtle-Dove – Streptopelia orientalis, Eurasian Collared-Dove – Streptopelia decaocto, Spotted Dove – Streptopelia chinensis, Common Ground-Dove – Columbina passerina, Ruddy Ground-Dove – Columbina talpacoti, White-tipped Dove – Leptotila verreauxi, Key West Quail-Dove – Geotrygon chrysia, Thick-billed Parrot – Rhynchopsitta pachyrhyncha, White-winged Parakeet – Brotogeris versicolurus, Red-crowned Parrot – Amazona viridigenalis, Yellow-billed Cuckoo – Coccyzus americanus, Black-billed Cuckoo – Coccyzus erythropthalmus, Greater Roadrunner – Geococcyx californianus, Groove-billed Ani – Crotophaga sulcirostris, Western Screech-Owl – Megascops kennicottii, Whiskered Screech-Owl – Megascops trichopsis, Northern Pygmy-Owl – Glaucidium gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl (Mexican or Mountain) – Glaucidium gnoma gnoma, Northern Pygmy-Owl (Pacific) – Glaucidium gnoma californicum group, Northern Pygmy-Owl (Interior West or Mountain) – Glaucidium gnoma pinicola group, Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl – Glaucidium brasilianum, Burrowing Owl (Western) – Athene cunicularia hypugaea, Burrowing Owl (Florida) – Athene cunicularia floridana, Spotted Owl (Northern) – Strix occidentalis occidentalis group, Spotted Owl (Mexican) – Strix occidentalis lucida, Short-eared Owl (Northern) – Asio flammeus flammeus *, Short-eared Owl (Antillean) – Asio flammeus domingensis group *, Boreal Owl (Tengmalm’s or Siberian) – Aegolius funereus magnus, Boreal Owl (American) – Aegolius funereus richardsoni, Northern Saw-whet Owl – Aegolius acadicus, Lesser Nighthawk – Chordeiles acutipennis, Common Nighthawk (Typical) – Chordeiles minor minor group, Common Nighthawk (Plains) – Chordeiles minor sennetti group, Antillean Nighthawk – Chordeiles gundlachii, Common Pauraque – Nyctidromus albicollis, Common Poorwill – Phalaenoptilus nuttallii, Chuck-will’s-widow – Caprimulgus carolinensis, Buff-collared Nightjar – Caprimulgus ridgwayi, Eastern Whip-poor-will – Caprimulgus vociferus, Mexican Whip-poor-will – Caprimulgus arizonae, White-collared Swift – Streptoprocne zonaris, Vaux’s Swift (Northern) – Chaetura vauxi vauxi, Vaux’s Swift (Mexican) – Chaetura vauxi tamaulipensis [richmondi group], White-throated Needletail – Hirundapus caudacutus, White-throated Swift – Aeronautes saxatalis, Antillean Palm-Swift – Tachornis phoenicobia, Green Violetear – Colibri thalassinus, Green-breasted Mango – Anthracothorax prevostii, Broad-billed Hummingbird – Cynanthus latirostris, White-eared Hummingbird – Hylocharis leucotis, Xantus’s Hummingbird – Hylocharis xantusii, Berylline Hummingbird – Amazilia beryllina, Buff-bellied Hummingbird – Amazilia yucatanensis, Cinnamon Hummingbird – Amazilia rutila, Violet-crowned Hummingbird – Amazilia violiceps, Blue-throated Hummingbird – Lampornis clemenciae, Magnificent Hummingbird – Eugenes fulgens, Plain-capped Starthroat – Heliomaster constantii, Bahama Woodstar – Calliphlox evelynae, Lucifer Hummingbird – Calothorax lucifer, Ruby-throated Hummingbird – Archilochus colubris, Black-chinned Hummingbird – Archilochus alexandri, Calliope Hummingbird – Stellula calliope, Bumblebee Hummingbird – Atthis heloisa, Broad-tailed Hummingbird – Selasphorus platycercus, Rufous Hummingbird – Selasphorus rufus, Allen’s Hummingbird – Selasphorus sasin, Ringed Kingfisher – Megaceryle torquata, Belted Kingfisher – Megaceryle alcyon, Amazon Kingfisher – Chloroceryle amazona, Green Kingfisher – Chloroceryle americana, Lewis’s Woodpecker – Melanerpes lewis, Red-headed Woodpecker – Melanerpes erythrocephalus, Acorn Woodpecker – Melanerpes formicivorus, Acorn Woodpecker (Pacific) – Melanerpes formicivorus bairdi, Acorn Woodpecker (Southwestern) – Melanerpes formicivorus formicivorus group, Gila Woodpecker – Melanerpes uropygialis, Golden-fronted Woodpecker – Melanerpes aurifrons, Red-bellied Woodpecker – Melanerpes carolinus, Williamson’s Sapsucker – Sphyrapicus thyroideus, Yellow-bellied Sapsucker – Sphyrapicus varius, Red-naped Sapsucker – Sphyrapicus nuchalis, Red-breasted Sapsucker – Sphyrapicus ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker (Northern) – Sphyrapicus ruber ruber, Red-breasted Sapsucker (Southern) – Sphyrapicus ruber daggetti, Great Spotted Woodpecker – Dendrocopos major, Ladder-backed Woodpecker – Picoides scalaris, Nuttall’s Woodpecker – Picoides nuttallii, Downy Woodpecker – Picoides pubescens, Downy Woodpecker (Eastern) – Picoides pubescens pubescens group, Downy Woodpecker (Interior West) – Picoides pubescens leucurus group, Downy Woodpecker (Pacific) – Picoides pubescens gairdnerii group, Hairy Woodpecker (Interior West) – Picoides villosus septentrionalis group, Hairy Woodpecker (Eastern) – Picoides villosus villosus group, Hairy Woodpecker (Pacific) – Picoides villosus harrisi group, Hairy Woodpecker (Mexican) – Picoides villosus icastus, Arizona Woodpecker – Picoides arizonae, Red-cockaded Woodpecker – Picoides borealis, White-headed Woodpecker – Picoides albolarvatus, American Three-toed Woodpecker – Picoides dorsalis, Black-backed Woodpecker – Picoides arcticus, Northern Flicker (Yellow-shafted) – Colaptes auratus auratus group, Northern Flicker (Red-shafted) – Colaptes auratus cafer group, Pileated Woodpecker – Dryocopus pileatus, Northern Beardless-Tyrannulet – Camptostoma imberbe, Greenish Elaenia – Myiopagis viridicata, White-crested Elaenia – Elaenia albiceps, Tufted Flycatcher – Mitrephanes phaeocercus, Olive-sided Flycatcher – Contopus cooperi, Western Wood-Pewee – Contopus sordidulus, Yellow-bellied Flycatcher – Empidonax flaviventris, Acadian Flycatcher – Empidonax virescens, Willow Flycatcher – Empidonax traillii, Willow Flycatcher (Eastern) – Empidonax traillii traillii group, Willow Flycatcher (Western) – Empidonax traillii brewsteri group, Hammond’s Flycatcher – Empidonax hammondii, Dusky Flycatcher – Empidonax oberholseri, Pacific-slope Flycatcher – Empidonax difficilis, Cordilleran Flycatcher – Empidonax occidentalis, Buff-breasted Flycatcher – Empidonax fulvifrons, Vermilion Flycatcher – Pyrocephalus rubinus, Dusky-capped Flycatcher – Myiarchus tuberculifer, Dusky-capped Flycatcher (West Mexican) – Myiarchus tuberculifer olivascens, Dusky-capped Flycatcher (East Mexican) – Myiarchus tuberculifer lawrenceii, Ash-throated Flycatcher – Myiarchus cinerascens, Nutting’s Flycatcher – Myiarchus nuttingi, Great Crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus crinitus, Brown-crested Flycatcher – Myiarchus tyrannulus, La Sagra’s Flycatcher – Myiarchus sagrae, Great Kiskadee – Pitangus sulphuratus, Social Flycatcher – Myiozetetes similis, Sulphur-bellied Flycatcher – Myiodynastes luteiventris, Piratic Flycatcher – Legatus leucophaius, Variegated Flycatcher – Empidonomus varius, Crowned Slaty Flycatcher – Empidonomus aurantioatrocristatus, Tropical Kingbird – Tyrannus melancholicus, Cassin’s Kingbird – Tyrannus vociferans, Thick-billed Kingbird – Tyrannus crassirostris, Western Kingbird – Tyrannus verticalis, Gray Kingbird – Tyrannus dominicensis, Loggerhead Kingbird – Tyrannus caudifasciatus, Scissor-tailed Flycatcher – Tyrannus forficatus, Fork-tailed Flycatcher – Tyrannus savana, Fork-tailed Flycatcher (South American) – Tyrannus savana savana group, Fork-tailed Flycatcher (Mexican) – Tyrannus savana monachus, Gray-collared Becard – Pachyramphus major, Rose-throated Becard – Pachyramphus aglaiae, Rose-throated Becard (West Mexican) – Pachyramphus aglaiae albiventris, Rose-throated Becard (East Mexican) – Pachyramphus aglaiae gravis, Loggerhead Shrike – Lanius ludovicianus, Northern Shrike (American) – Lanius excubitor borealis group, Northern Shrike (Siberian or Great Grey) – Lanius excubitor sibiricus, Thick-billed Vireo – Vireo crassirostris, Bell’s Vireo (Eastern) – Vireo bellii bellii, Bell’s Vireo (Southwestern) – Vireo bellii pusillus group, Black-capped Vireo – Vireo atricapilla, Yellow-throated Vireo – Vireo flavifrons, Hutton’s Vireo (Pacific) – Vireo huttoni huttoni group, Hutton’s Vireo (Mexican) – Vireo huttoni stephensi group, Warbling Vireo (Eastern) – Vireo gilvus gilvus, Warbling Vireo (Western) – Vireo gilvus swainsoni group, Philadelphia Vireo – Vireo philadelphicus, Yellow-green Vireo – Vireo flavoviridis, Black-whiskered Vireo – Vireo altiloquus, Gray Jay (Taiga) – Perisoreus canadensis canadensis group, Gray Jay (Mountain) – Perisoreus canadensis capitalis group, Gray Jay (Pacific) – Perisoreus canadensis obscurus group, Steller’s Jay (Pacific) – Cyanocitta stelleri stelleri group, Steller’s Jay (Mountain) – Cyanocitta stelleri diademata group, Florida Scrub-Jay – Aphelocoma coerulescens, Island Scrub-Jay – Aphelocoma insularis, Western Scrub-Jay – Aphelocoma californica, Western Scrub-Jay (Pacific) – Aphelocoma californica californica group *, Western Scrub-Jay (Interior West or Woodhouse’s) – Aphelocoma californica woodhouseii group *, Mexican Jay (Arizona) – Aphelocoma ultramarina arizonae [wollweberi group] *, Mexican Jay (Texas or Couch’s) – Aphelocoma ultramarina couchii group *, Pinyon Jay – Gymnorhinus cyanocephalus, Clark’s Nutcracker – Nucifraga columbiana, American Crow – Corvus brachyrhynchos, Chihuahuan Raven – Corvus cryptoleucus, Horned Lark (Asian) – Eremophila alpestris flava, Horned Lark (Western Arctic) – Eremophila alpestris alpestris group, Horned Lark (Northeastern) – Eremophila alpestris praticola, Horned Lark (East Mexican) – Eremophila alpestris giraudi, Horned Lark (Interior West) – Eremophila alpestris leucolaema, Horned Lark (West Mexican) – Eremophila alpestris occidentalis, Horned Lark (Pacific Northwest) – Eremophila alpestris strigata group, Horned Lark (California) – Eremophila alpestris rubea, Northern Rough-winged Swallow – Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Purple Martin (Eastern) – Progne subis subis, Purple Martin (Western) – Progne subis hesperia group, Gray-breasted Martin – Progne chalybea, Mangrove Swallow – Tachycineta albilinea, Violet-green Swallow – Tachycineta thalassina, Bahama Swallow – Tachycineta cyaneoviridis, Barn Swallow (Eurasian) – Hirundo rustica rustica group *, Barn Swallow (American) – Hirundo rustica erythrogaster *, Cliff Swallow – Petrochelidon pyrrhonota, Cliff Swallow (Northern) – Petrochelidon pyrrhonota pyrrhonota group, Cliff Swallow (Mexican) – Petrochelidon pyrrhonota melanogaster, Common House-Martin – Delichon urbicum, Carolina Chickadee – Poecile carolinensis, Black-capped Chickadee – Poecile atricapillus, Mountain Chickadee (Interior West) – Poecile gambeli gambeli group, Mountain Chickadee (Pacific) – Poecile gambeli baileyae group, Chestnut-backed Chickadee – Poecile rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee (Northern) – Poecile rufescens rufescens, Chestnut-backed Chickadee (California) – Poecile rufescens barlowi group, Boreal Chickadee – Poecile hudsonicus, Gray-headed Chickadee – Poecile cinctus, Bridled Titmouse – Baeolophus wollweberi, Juniper Titmouse – Baeolophus ridgwayi, Black-crested Titmouse – Baeolophus atricristatus, Bushtit (Pacific) – Psaltriparus minimus minimus group *, Bushtit (Interior West) – Psaltriparus minimus plumbeus [melanotis group] *, Red-breasted Nuthatch – Sitta canadensis, White-breasted Nuthatch – Sitta carolinensis, White-breasted Nuthatch (Eastern) – Sitta carolinensis carolinensis *, White-breasted Nuthatch (Rocky Mountain) – Sitta carolinensis mexicana group *, White-breasted Nuthatch (Pacific) – Sitta carolinensis aculeata group *, Brown-headed Nuthatch – Sitta pusilla, Brown Creeper (Pacific) – Certhia americana occidentalis group, Brown Creeper (Rocky Mountain) – Certhia americana montana group, Brown Creeper (Eastern) – Certhia americana americana group, Brown Creeper (Mexican) – Certhia americana albescens *, Cactus Wren – Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus, Cactus Wren (Mexican) – Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus anthonyi [brunneicapillus group] *, Cactus Wren (California) – Campylorhynchus brunneicapillus sandiegensis [affinis group] *, Carolina Wren – Thryothorus ludovicianus, Bewick’s Wren (Eastern) – Thryomanes bewickii bewickii group, Bewick’s Wren (Southwestern) – Thryomanes bewickii eremophilus [mexicanus group], Bewick’s Wren (Pacific) – Thryomanes bewickii spilurus group, House Wren (Northern) – Troglodytes aedon aedon group, House Wren (Mexican or Brown-throated) – Troglodytes aedon cahooni, Pacific Wren (Alaska) – Troglodytes pacificus alascensis group, Pacific Wren (Southern) – Troglodytes pacificus pacificus group, Marsh Wren (Western) – Cistothorus palustris paludicola group *, Marsh Wren (Eastern) – Cistothorus palustris palustris group *, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher – Polioptila caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Eastern) – Polioptila caerulea caerulea, Blue-gray Gnatcatcher (Western) – Polioptila caerulea amoenissima [obscura group], California Gnatcatcher – Polioptila californica, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher – Polioptila melanura, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher (Western or Sonoran) – Polioptila melanura lucida, Black-tailed Gnatcatcher (Eastern or Chihuahuan) – Polioptila melanura melanura, Black-capped Gnatcatcher – Polioptila nigriceps, Red-whiskered Bulbul – Pycnonotus jocosus, Golden-crowned Kinglet – Regulus satrapa, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Western) – Regulus satrapa olivaceus group, Golden-crowned Kinglet (Eastern) – Regulus satrapa satrapa, Ruby-crowned Kinglet – Regulus calendula, Willow Warbler – Phylloscopus trochilus, Wood Warbler – Phylloscopus sibilatrix, Dusky Warbler – Phylloscopus fuscatus, Pallas’s Leaf-Warbler – Phylloscopus proregulus, Yellow-browed Warbler – Phylloscopus inornatus, Arctic Warbler – Phylloscopus borealis, Arctic Warbler (Northern) – Phylloscopus borealis borealis *, Arctic Warbler (Kamchatka Leaf Warbler) – Phylloscopus borealis xanthodryas *, Sedge Warbler – Acrocephalus schoenobaenus, Lanceolated Warbler – Locustella lanceolata, Middendorff’s Grasshopper-Warbler – Locustella ochotensis, Spotted Flycatcher – Muscicapa striata, Dark-sided Flycatcher – Muscicapa sibirica, Gray-streaked Flycatcher – Muscicapa griseisticta, Asian Brown Flycatcher – Muscicapa dauurica, Narcissus Flycatcher – Ficedula narcissina, Taiga Flycatcher – Ficedula albicilla, Rufous-tailed Robin – Luscinia sibilans, Siberian Rubythroat – Luscinia calliope, Red-flanked Bluetail – Tarsiger cyanurus, Northern Wheatear – Oenanthe oenanthe, Eastern Bluebird (Eastern) – Sialia sialis sialis group, Eastern Bluebird (Mexican) – Sialia sialis fulva [guatemalae group], Mountain Bluebird – Sialia currucoides, Townsend’s Solitaire – Myadestes townsendi, Brown-backed Solitaire – Myadestes occidentalis, Orange-billed Nightingale-Thrush – Catharus aurantiirostris, Black-headed Nightingale-Thrush – Catharus mexicanus, Gray-cheeked Thrush – Catharus minimus, Bicknell’s Thrush – Catharus bicknelli, Swainson’s Thrush – Catharus ustulatus, Swainson’s Thrush (Pacific or Russet-backed) – Catharus ustulatus ustulatus group *, Swainson’s Thrush (Taiga or Olive-backed) – Catharus ustulatus swainsoni *, Hermit Thrush (Pacific) – Catharus guttatus guttatus group *, Hermit Thrush (Interior West) – Catharus guttatus auduboni group *, Hermit Thrush (Taiga) – Catharus guttatus faxoni group *, White-throated Thrush – Turdus assimilis, Rufous-backed Robin – Turdus rufopalliatus, Gray Catbird – Dumetella carolinensis, Northern Mockingbird – Mimus polyglottos, Bahama Mockingbird – Mimus gundlachii, Long-billed Thrasher – Toxostoma longirostre, Bendire’s Thrasher – Toxostoma bendirei, Curve-billed Thrasher – Toxostoma curvirostre, Curve-billed Thrasher (Texas or Chihuahuan) – Toxostoma curvirostre curvirostre group *, Curve-billed Thrasher (Arizona or Sonoran or Palmer’s) – Toxostoma curvirostre palmeri group *, California Thrasher – Toxostoma redivivum, Crissal Thrasher – Toxostoma crissale, Le Conte’s Thrasher – Toxostoma lecontei, Blue Mockingbird – Melanotis caerulescens, Siberian Accentor – Prunella montanella, Eastern Yellow Wagtail – Motacilla tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Siberian) – Motacilla tschutschensis tschutschensis, Eastern Yellow Wagtail (Kamchatka) – Motacilla tschutschensis simillima, White Wagtail (European) – Motacilla alba alba group, White Wagtail (Siberian) – Motacilla alba ocularis, White Wagtail (Black-backed ) – Motacilla alba lugens, American Pipit (Asian) – Anthus rubescens japonicus, American Pipit (Buff-bellied Pipit) – Anthus rubescens rubescens group, Bohemian Waxwing – Bombycilla garrulus, Bohemian Waxwing (American) – Bombycilla garrulus pallidiceps, Bohemian Waxwing (Asian) – Bombycilla garrulus centralasiae, Gray Silky-flycatcher – Ptilogonys cinereus, Olive Warbler – Peucedramus taeniatus, McCown’s Longspur – Rhynchophanes mccownii, Lapland Longspur – Calcarius lapponicus, Chestnut-collared Longspur – Calcarius ornatus, McKay’s Bunting – Plectrophenax hyperboreus, Blue-winged Warbler – Vermivora cyanoptera, Golden-winged Warbler – Vermivora chrysoptera, Tennessee Warbler – Oreothlypis peregrina, Orange-crowned Warbler – Oreothlypis celata, Orange-crowned Warbler (Taiga) – Vermivora celata celata, Orange-crowned Warbler (Interior West ) – Vermivora celata orestera, Orange-crowned Warbler (Pacific) – Vermivora celata lutescens, Orange-crowned Warbler (Channel Islands ) – Vermivora celata sordida, Nashville Warbler – Oreothlypis ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler (Eastern) – Vermivora ruficapilla ruficapilla, Nashville Warbler (Western or Calaveras) – Vermivora ruficapilla ridgwayi, Virginia’s Warbler – Oreothlypis virginiae, Colima Warbler – Oreothlypis crissalis, Crescent-chested Warbler – Parula superciliosa, Yellow Warbler (Northern) – Dendroica petechia aestiva group *, Yellow Warbler (Mangrove) – Dendroica petechia erithachorides group *, Yellow Warbler (Golden) – Dendroica petechia gundlachi [petechia group] *, Chestnut-sided Warbler – Dendroica pensylvanica, Magnolia Warbler – Dendroica magnolia, Black-throated Blue Warbler – Dendroica caerulescens, Yellow-rumped Warbler – Dendroica coronata, Yellow-rumped Warbler (Myrtle or Taiga) – Dendroica coronata coronata group *, Yellow-rumped Warbler (Audubon’s or Western) – Dendroica coronata auduboni group *, Black-throated Gray Warbler – Dendroica nigrescens, Golden-cheeked Warbler – Dendroica chrysoparia, Black-throated Green Warbler – Dendroica virens, Townsend’s Warbler – Dendroica townsendi, Hermit Warbler – Dendroica occidentalis, Blackburnian Warbler – Dendroica fusca, Yellow-throated Warbler – Dendroica dominica, Kirtland’s Warbler – Dendroica kirtlandii, Palm Warbler (Brown) – Dendroica palmarum palmarum, Palm Warbler (Yellow) – Dendroica palmarum hypochrysea, Bay-breasted Warbler – Dendroica castanea, Blackpoll Warbler – Dendroica striata, Black-and-white Warbler – Mniotilta varia, American Redstart – Setophaga ruticilla, Prothonotary Warbler – Protonotaria citrea, Worm-eating Warbler – Helmitheros vermivorum, Swainson’s Warbler – Limnothlypis swainsonii, Northern Waterthrush – Parkesia noveboracensis, Louisiana Waterthrush – Parkesia motacilla, Kentucky Warbler – Oporornis formosus, Connecticut Warbler – Oporornis agilis, Mourning Warbler – Oporornis philadelphia, MacGillivray’s Warbler – Oporornis tolmiei, Common Yellowthroat – Geothlypis trichas, Common Yellowthroat (Pacific) – Geothlypis trichas arizela group, Common Yellowthroat (Interior West) – Geothlypis trichas occidentalis group, Common Yellowthroat (Eastern) – Geothlypis trichas trichas group, Common Yellowthroat (Southwestern) – Geothlypis trichas chryseola group, Bahama Yellowthroat – Geothlypis rostrata, Gray-crowned Yellowthroat – Geothlypis poliocephala, Wilson’s Warbler (Taiga) – Wilsonia pusilla pusilla, Wilson’s Warbler (Pacific) – Wilsonia pusilla chryseola, Red-faced Warbler – Cardellina rubrifrons, Slate-throated Redstart – Myioborus miniatus, Fan-tailed Warbler – Euthlypis lachrymosa, Golden-crowned Warbler – Basileuterus culicivorus, Rufous-capped Warbler – Basileuterus rufifrons, Yellow-breasted Chat – Icteria virens, Western Spindalis (Southern Bahamas or Green-backed) – Spindalis zena zena, Western Spindalis (Northern Bahamas or Black-backed) – Spindalis zena townsendi, Western Spindalis (Cuban) – Spindalis zena pretrei, Red-legged Honeycreeper – Cyanerpes cyaneus, White-collared Seedeater – Sporophila torqueola, White-collared Seedeater (East Mexican) – Sporophila torqueola morelleti group, White-collared Seedeater (Cinnamon-rumped or West Mexican) – Sporophila torqueola torqueola, Yellow-faced Grassquit – Tiaris olivaceus, Black-faced Grassquit – Tiaris bicolor, Olive Sparrow – Arremonops rufivirgatus, Green-tailed Towhee – Pipilo chlorurus, Spotted Towhee (Pacific) – Pipilo maculatus oregonus group, Spotted Towhee (Great Plains) – Pipilo maculatus arcticus group, Spotted Towhee (Southwestern) – Pipilo maculatus montanus group, Eastern Towhee – Pipilo erythrophthalmus, California Towhee – Melozone crissalis, Rufous-winged Sparrow – Peucaea carpalis, Bachman’s Sparrow – Peucaea aestivalis, Botteri’s Sparrow (Western) – Peucaea botterii arizonae, Botteri’s Sparrow (Eastern) – Peucaea botterii texana, Rufous-crowned Sparrow – Aimophila ruficeps, Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Pacific) – Aimophila ruficeps ruficeps group, Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Interior) – Aimophila ruficeps scottii group, Five-striped Sparrow – Amphispiza quinquestriata, American Tree Sparrow – Spizella arborea, Chipping Sparrow – Spizella passerina, Clay-colored Sparrow – Spizella pallida, Brewer’s Sparrow (Southern) – Spizella breweri breweri *, Brewer’s Sparrow (Timberline) – Spizella breweri taverneri *, Worthen’s Sparrow – Spizella wortheni, Black-chinned Sparrow – Spizella atrogularis, Black-throated Sparrow – Amphispiza bilineata, Sage Sparrow (Pacific or Bell’s) – Amphispiza belli belli group *, Sage Sparrow (Interior) – Amphispiza belli nevadensis *, Lark Bunting – Calamospiza melanocorys, Savannah Sparrow – Passerculus sandwichensis, Savannah Sparrow (Ipswich) – Passerculus sandwichensis princeps *, Savannah Sparrow (Continental) – Passerculus sandwichensis sandwichensis group *, Savannah Sparrow (Belding’s) – Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi [guttatus group] *, Savannah Sparrow (Large-billed) – Passerculus sandwichensis rostratus group *, Grasshopper Sparrow – Ammodramus savannarum, Henslow’s Sparrow – Ammodramus henslowii, Le Conte’s Sparrow – Ammodramus leconteii, Nelson’s Sparrow – Ammodramus nelsoni, Nelson’s Sparrow (Interior) – Ammodramus nelsoni nelsoni group *, Nelson’s Sparrow (Atlantic or Acadian) – Ammodramus nelsoni subvirgatus *, Saltmarsh Sparrow – Ammodramus caudacutus, Seaside Sparrow – Ammodramus maritimus, Seaside Sparrow (Atlantic) – Ammodramus maritimus maritimus group, Seaside Sparrow (Dusky) – Ammodramus maritimus nigrescens, Seaside Sparrow (Gulf Coast) – Ammodramus maritimus sennetti group, Seaside Sparrow (Cape Sable) – Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis, Fox Sparrow (Sooty or Pacific) – Passerella iliaca unalaschcensis group *, Fox Sparrow (Thick-billed or California) – Passerella iliaca megarhyncha group *, Fox Sparrow (Slate-colored or Interior West) – Passerella iliaca schistacea group *, Fox Sparrow (Red or Taiga) – Passerella iliaca iliaca group *, Song Sparrow (Aleutian) – Melospiza melodia sanaka group, Song Sparrow (Pacific Northwest) – Melospiza melodia rufina group, Song Sparrow (California) – Melospiza melodia samuelis group, Song Sparrow (Southwestern) – Melospiza melodia fallax group, Song Sparrow (Eastern) – Melospiza melodia melodia group, Lincoln’s Sparrow – Melospiza lincolnii, White-throated Sparrow – Zonotrichia albicollis, Harris’s Sparrow – Zonotrichia querula, White-crowned Sparrow – Zonotrichia leucophrys, White-crowned Sparrow (Taiga or Gambel’s) – Zonotrichia leucophrys leucophrys group, White-crowned Sparrow (Mountain) – Zonotrichia leucophrys oriantha, White-crowned Sparrow (Pacific or Nuttall’s) – Zonotrichia leucophrys nuttalli group, Golden-crowned Sparrow – Zonotrichia atricapilla, Dark-eyed Junco (Slate-colored ) – Junco hyemalis hyemalis group, Dark-eyed Junco (Oregon) – Junco hyemalis oreganus group, Dark-eyed Junco (Pink-sided) – Junco hyemalis mearnsi, Dark-eyed Junco (White-winged) – Junco hyemalis aikeni, Dark-eyed Junco (Gray-headed) – Junco hyemalis caniceps, Dark-eyed Junco (Red-backed) – Junco hyemalis dorsalis, Pine Bunting – Emberiza leucocephalos, Yellow-browed Bunting – Emberiza chrysophrys, Yellow-throated Bunting – Emberiza elegans, Yellow-breasted Bunting – Emberiza aureola, Summer Tanager (Western or Cooper’s) – Piranga rubra cooperi group, Summer Tanager (Eastern) – Piranga rubra rubra, Western Tanager – Piranga ludoviciana, Flame-colored Tanager – Piranga bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager (West Mexican) – Piranga bidentata bidentata, Flame-colored Tanager (East Mexican) – Piranga bidentata sanguinolenta, Crimson-collared Grosbeak – Rhodothraupis celaeno, Northern Cardinal – Cardinalis cardinalis, Northern Cardinal (Southwestern) – Cardinalis cardinalis superbus group, Northern Cardinal (Eastern) – Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis group, Yellow Grosbeak – Pheucticus chrysopeplus, Rose-breasted Grosbeak – Pheucticus ludovicianus, Black-headed Grosbeak – Pheucticus melanocephalus, Varied Bunting – Passerina versicolor, Red-winged Blackbird – Agelaius phoeniceus, Red-winged Blackbird (Typical) – Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus group, Red-winged Blackbird (Bicolored) – Agelaius phoeniceus californicus group, Tricolored Blackbird – Agelaius tricolor, Tawny-shouldered Blackbird – Agelaius humeralis, Eastern Meadowlark (Eastern) – Sturnella magna magna group, Eastern Meadowlark (Lilian’s) – Sturnella magna lilianae, Western Meadowlark – Sturnella neglecta, Yellow-headed Blackbird – Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus, Brewer’s Blackbird – Euphagus cyanocephalus, Common Grackle (Purple) – Quiscalus quiscula quiscula group, Common Grackle (Bronzed) – Quiscalus quiscula versicolor, Boat-tailed Grackle – Quiscalus major, Great-tailed Grackle – Quiscalus mexicanus, Shiny Cowbird – Molothrus bonariensis, Bronzed Cowbird (Western) – Molothrus aeneus loyei group, Bronzed Cowbird (Eastern) – Molothrus aeneus aeneus, Brown-headed Cowbird – Molothrus ater, Brown-headed Cowbird (Western) – Molothrus ater artemisiae group, Brown-headed Cowbird (Eastern) – Molothrus ater ater, Black-vented Oriole – Icterus wagleri, Orchard Oriole (Northern) – Icterus spurius spurius, Orchard Oriole (Fuertes’s) – Icterus spurius fuertesi, Streak-backed Oriole – Icterus pustulatus, Spot-breasted Oriole – Icterus pectoralis, Audubon’s Oriole – Icterus graduacauda, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch – Leucosticte tephrocotis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Bering Sea ) – Leucosticte tephrocotis umbrina, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Aleutian) – Leucosticte tephrocotis griseonucha, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Gray-cheeked or Hepburn’s or Coastal) – Leucosticte tephrocotis littoralis, Gray-crowned Rosy-Finch (Interior) – Leucosticte tephrocotis tephrocotis group, Black Rosy-Finch – Leucosticte atrata, Brown-capped Rosy-Finch – Leucosticte australis, Pine Grosbeak (Kamchatka) – Pinicola enucleator kamtschatkensis, Pine Grosbeak (Pacific) – Pinicola enucleator flammula group, Pine Grosbeak (Interior West) – Pinicola enucleator montana group, Pine Grosbeak (Taiga) – Pinicola enucleator leucura group, Common Rosefinch – Carpodacus erythrinus, Purple Finch (Eastern) – Carpodacus purpureus purpureus *, Purple Finch (California) – Carpodacus purpureus californicus *, White-winged Crossbill – Loxia leucoptera, Common Redpoll (Southern) – Acanthis flammea flammea, Common Redpoll (Greater or Greenland) – Acanthis flammea rostrata, Hoary Redpoll (Southern) – Acanthis hornemanni exilipes, Hoary Redpoll (Hornemann’s or Greenland) – Acanthis hornemanni hornemanni, Lawrence’s Goldfinch – Spinus lawrencei, Eurasian Bullfinch – Pyrrhula pyrrhula, Evening Grosbeak – Coccothraustes vespertinus, Hawfinch – Coccothraustes coccothraustes, Eurasian Tree Sparrow – Passer montanus, Nutmeg Mannikin – Lonchura punctulata.

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