Solution 45: In this case, the zero error is positive Least count of screw gauge = 0.01 mm Thus, zero error = 0 + 4 x L.C. And it should be ensured that the pointer swings equally on both sides of the zero mark of the scale. PAGE NO: 15 Solution 1: Measurement is an act or the result of comparison of a quantity whose magnitude is unknown with a predefined standard. Lower meniscus should be read to note down the readings and error due to parallax should be avoided. The weights should not be carried with bare hands to avoid the change in weights due to moisture and dust particles from the surrounding. Solution 8: 1 Parsec is bigger because 1 Parsec is 3.26 times a light year. = 0.04 mm, Solution 46: In this case, the zero error is negative Least count of screw gauge = 0.01 mm Thus, zero error = (50-47) x L.C. We can measure the length accurately up to the order of 10-2 cm, 10-3 cm depending upon the vernier used. Solution 30: Measurement of volume of an irregular solid soluble in water using a graduated cylinder. This extent is usually described by the least count of the instrument and since the least count for a given instrument is limited hence, the accuracy of the instrument is limited. SI unit of volume is cubic metre (m3), Solution 23: The space occupied by a body is known as its volume. SI unit of volume is cubic metre (m3), Solution 24: 1 m3 = 1000 litre 1 litre = 1/1000 m3 = 0.001 m3, Solution 26: SI unit of volume is cubic metre or metre3 (m3). Solution 25: Unit of Least count of an instrument is cm. Now record the division of circular scale that coincides with the base line of main scale. For example, if a body is freely falling down to the ground, to understand this phenomenon we must know its velocity, time it will take to reach the ground , etc and to get answer to all our questions we need measurement. 1. Solution 35: Measurement is needed for precise description of any phenomenon happening in the world. We should use screw gauge instead as its least count is 0.01 mm as the thickness of the paper is in the range of 10-2 mm. There are two types of zero error –, Solution 10: Two scales in a screw gauge are. It is distance between two consecutive threads of the screw. Solution 5: When one complete rotation is given to the screw hand, it moves forward or backward by a distance called pitch of the screw. Solution 13: If time period of a pendulum becomes infinite, the pendulum will not oscillate at all as pendulum will take infinite time to complete one oscillation. Solution 9: 1 Fermi is smaller because 1 Fermi is 10-15 m while 1 micron is 10-6 m. Solution 10: Parsec refers to the distance at which an arc of length equal to 1 astronomical unit subtends an angle of one second at a point. Solution 12: Vernier caliper is an instrument used for measuring small lengths of solid objects where an ordinary scale cannot be applied. Solution 14: No, micron is not same as millimeter because micron is equal to 10-6metre while a millimeter is equal to 10-3metre. Physics notes for class 9th chapter 1 PDF consist of the solved Review Questions and Conceptual Questions. In this case, kerosene or any liquid whose density is lighter than water and in which the solid is not soluble is used. Solution 11: Least count of a vernier caliper used in laboratory is 0.1mm = 0.01cm. Solution 23: A screw are threaded to twist in, when turned with a screw driver while nails are smooth to slide in straight when pounded with hammer. Solved Numerical in physics notes for class 9th chapter 1. that give a ready measure of the quantities with the help of graduated scales. A circular scale divided into 50 or 100 equal parts. Next, place some weight on the right pan form the weight box using the forceps. We say that the measurements are consistent. Solution 32: The time period, T and frequency of oscillation, f are related as, T = 1/ for f = 1/T. Example 2. PAGE NO: 46 Solution 1: Unit is a standard quantity of the same kind with which a physical quantity is compared for measuring it. Solution 4: SI unit of frequency is hertz (Hz). Therefore in order to get the correct reading, the zero error should always be added from the observed reading. Solution 2: The physical quantities like mass, length and time which do not depend on each other are known as fundamental […] When there is positive zero error, then the instrument reads more than the actual reading. The sinker should have a high density than water. Copyright (c) 2020 Electrical Study Notes All Right Reseved. False, because the accuracy is higher in case of screw gauge due to lower least count value of 0.01mm, False, because its least count is limited to 0.1 cm. (c) When the shots are closely clustered together, it shows that repeated measurements yield almost the same reading. Pitch of the screw = distance travelled by screw in n rotations/n rotations. It must be carefully noted that the side to which the pointer moves more, denotes lesser mass on that side. Calculate the least count and zero error of the screw gauge. One standard kilogram is equal to the mass of a cylinder of nearly same height and diameter and made up of platinum and iridium alloy. thus this length can be measured with an instrument of least count of 0.001 cm i.e. Go on adjusting the standard weights till the pointer swings equally on both sides of the zero mark. Solution 2: No, least count is not same as pitch because least count is found by dividing pitch by number of divisions on the circular scale. Solution 3: The units which can be expressed in terms of fundamental units of mass, length and time are known as derived units. Sensitivity of a measuring instrument is its ability to detect quickly a small change in the value of quantity to be measured. It is avoided by turning the screw always in the same direction. Solution 19: Material used for making screw gauge is stainless steel to avoid expansion and contraction due to change in weather as stainless steel absorbs a little heat. Experiments which are the key to the development of physical theories involve measurements of various physical quantities. Solution 2: A seconds pendulum is a pendulum which takes 2 seconds to complete one oscillation. Whenever you are near the actual weight, you should carefully try the weights in the descending order. Turn the ratchet clockwise so as to hold the wire gently in between the studs. 1 Parsec = 2 x 105 A.U. Solution 21: If the zero of the circular scale lies above the line of graduation then it is called negative zero error. The length of seconds pendulum, where g = 9.8ms-2, is nearly 1 m. Solution 12: When a pendulum is taken from earth to moon surface, its time period will increase because the acceleration due to gravity on moon is less than that on earth and the time period depends inversely on square root of acceleration due to gravity. Record the observed length by adding the main scale reading and the vernier scale reading. Solution 23: SI units of time and mass are second (s) and kilogram (kg) respectively. Record the lower meniscus of liquid and let the value be V. Tie the solid whose volume is to be measured to a strong string and lower it into the water gently. 1. Therefore in order to get the correct reading, the zero error should always be subtracted from the observed reading.

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