These crossbills seem to occur especially in the south-western Balkans. (2002). All this would have been impossible without your help! You can listen to the examples by clicking on the blue subtitles and the key features for identification are given in the spectrograms. ( Abmelden /  Looking at the wavogram (amplitude dependent of time), amplitude is larger in the first decreasing part of the spectrogram of the call (red line) in N15 than in N4. France, January 2011 © Julien Rochefort. N6 is more or less restricted to Great Britain and adjacent coasts, while N2 was found in southern Europe from Germany to Slovakia down to Iberia and the Balkans. If both parts of the syrinx utters different sounds at the same point of time, we coloured the lower element of the call red and the upper blue. After the alarm call in the beginning the whole flock takes off at once. potential Red Crossbill call type S23. Rarely N10. Cliquez ici pour lire la version française, To jump directly to the call type index, click here, To enter data into the online sheet, click here. The species of crossbills are difficult to separate, and care is needed even with the two-barred and Hispaniolan crossbills, the easiest. potential Red Crossbill call type S19 This population is restricted to Scotland with few records elsewhere. Figure 80: A male of N17 in the French Alps, October 2018, Figure 81: FCs of N17 (in background: Coal Tit (Periparus ater), Robin (Erithacus rubecula)). For differences in spectrogram, see lower part of each line or figure 7 and figure 36. Additionally, similarity of calls among individuals seemed to decrease with distance. But we have one request: if you add data, please do not only add data of the rare call types, but also of the common ones present. Until today, there were two different nomenclatures for crossbill call types in Europe: Robb (2000) named them with a letter (A until F plus X (Constantine et al. Red Crossbill call type N23 Many of the calls in southern areas resembled northern call types but nevertheless showed differences. Red Crossbill call type N7 The upper two lines show calls of adult birds, the lower two lines show calls of young birds. Spain, January 2015 © Ralph Martin, Figure 64: Variation of FCs of N12 of 20 different individuals, Figure 65: Variation of ECs of N12 of 20 different individuals. Sign in to see your badges. You will be rewarded with much more information about the bird. Great Britain (background species: FCs of Red Crossbill N6), December 2014 © Ralph Martin, Figure 33: Variation of FCs of N6 of 20 different individuals, Figure 34: Variation of ECs of N6 of 20 different individuals. Two barred Crossbill (Loxia leucoptera bifasciata) occurs mainly in Scandinavia and Siberia with rare records apart from there. Crossbill N20. The original results will be presented in a series of papers in peer-review journals and include the delimitation, spatial distribution and temporal variation of crossbill call types. For each call type, ECs are shown on the left and FCs on the right and ECs and FCs of three different individuals are shown (if available in decent quality). Johnson (2), Eddy Scheinpflug (6), Eduard Leinwand (2), Edwin de Weerd (1), Edwin Schuller (1), Eelke Schoppers (3), Eetu Paljakka (5), Elias A. Ryberg (5), Elias Tibax (1), Ellen de Bruin (4), Emo Klunder (4), Enno Ebels (1), Ercn Byrktr (1), Eric Jacobs (1), Eric Menkveld (2), Eric Nobles (1), Erik Eggenkamp (5), Erik Ernens (1), Erik Etienne (1), Erik van Boxtel (2), Erik van Dijk (7), Erwin Goutbeek (24), Erwin Hooge (1), Erwin Reinstra (1), Erwin Tretzel (6), Eterna (1), Evert Meijer (3), Fabian Anger (31), Fabian Meijer (12), Fabien Zecchino (1), Fernand Deroussen (14), Folkert de Boer (2), Folkert Jan Hoogstra (2), Francesco Sottile (2), Franck Hollander (1), François Charron (12), Frank Hidvegi (1), Frank Holzapfel (96), Frank Lambert (5), Frank Neijts (19), Frank Roos (28), Frank Wichmann (14), Fred Hoorn (2), Fred Hustings (8), Fred Jüssi (1), Fred P. (1), Fredrik Lennartsson (1), Fredrik sundberg (2), Gabriel Leite (2), Garry Bakker (2), Geert Colembie (1), Geert Custers (3), George Konstantinou (1), George Tanis (5), Ger de Hoog (1), Gerard Kenter (3), Gerbert Strang (3), Gerd-Jan Pontenagel (1), Gerd Wichers (2), Gerjon Gelling (3), Gideon Vreeman (1), Gijsbert Twigt (6), Giovanni Cristofaro Sante (1), Giuseppe Speranza (3), Graham Catley (4), Greg Baker (1), Grzegorz Jedro (1), Guerroudj Oussama (1), Guido Berger (2), Guido Klerk (2), Guido O. Jeijl (2), Guido Verhoef (2), Gunnar Fernqvist (1), Günther Tembrock (4), Guus Jeniskens (2), Guus van Duin (69), Han Derks (7), Hannie van Gils (1), Hannu Jännes (1), Hans-Heiner Bergmann (17), Hans de Nobel (2), Hans Groot (10), Hans Lütgens (4), Hans Matheve (8), Hans Schekkerman (4), Hans Schouwenburg (2), happy0325 (1), Harry Hussey (5), Harry van der Borg (1), Henk-Jan van der Kolk (2), Henk Bakkenes (1), Henk Noordkamp (1), Henk van den Berg (1), Henrik Storm (1), Herman Bruggink (1), Herman van der Meer (1), Herman van Oosten (21), Herrald Damen (3), Hietkamp Sander (8), Hubert Pottiau (1), Hugo Bastos (1), Hugo Wieleman (11),Huub ter Haar (4), I. Farronato (4), Ian Christopher Todd (3), Ilja Kondratjew (1), Ilkka Heiskanen (1), Ingmar van der Brugge (1), Ingo Röhl (2), Ingo Rösler (1), Ingo Weiß (5), Ivan Medenica (1), Ivo Meeuwissen (2), Jaap de Jong (3), Jaap Dijkhuizen (4), Jacek Betleja (1), Jaco Walhout (1), Jacob Bosma (13), Jacob Lotz (7), Jacob Molenaar (4), James Lidster (1), Jan-Freerk Kloen (2), Jan-Ole Kriegs (2), Jan Borst (5), Jan Daniels-Trautner (1), Jan Erik Kikkert (14), Jan Hartog (1), Jan Hein Van Steenis (2), Jan Peter Mollema (1), Jan Severeyns (2), Jan Sohler (24), Jan Verboom (13), Jan Willem den Besten (1), Janet Williams (1), Janne Bruun (2), Jarek Matusiak (41), Jarek Slowikowski (1), Jaring Roosma (1), Jarmila Kačírková (1), Jarmo Pirhonen (1), Jasper Koster (4), Jean.-Sébastien Rousseau-Piot (2), Jelle Aalders (1), Jelle Jacobsen (6), Jelmer Poelstra (99), Jens Büße (1), Jens Halbauer (316), Jens Kirkeby (7), Jens Loose (1), Jeroen Breidenbach (27), Jeroen de Bruijn (1), Jeroen van Erp (7), Jeroen Veeken (33), Jeroen Verburg (1), Jerome Fischer (24), Jesse Fagan (1), Jesús Laborda (1), Jillis Roos (9), Joachim Vreeman (1), Jochem Drost (1), Jochem van de Kamp (1), Jochen Roeder (1), Jochen Völlm (1), Joey Braat (3), Johan Barth (3), Johan Buckens (5), Johan Jordaans (7), Johan Roeland (4), Johan van Laerhoven (1), Johanna van Dillen-Staal (1), Johannes Buhl (45), Johannes Honold (313), Johannes Martin (1), Johnny Rommens (2), Jonas Buddemeier (63), Jonas Grahn (364), Jonas Kotlarz (1), Joost de Jong (9), Joost Heeremans (1), Joost Schout (1), Joost van Bruggen (14), Joram de Gans (2), Jordi Calvet (7), Jorick van Arneym (1), Jorick van de Westeringh (4), Joris Blokhuis (1), José Carlos Sires (45), Josep del Hoyo (5), Juan José Bazán Hiraldo (1), Juan Sanabria (2), Juha Honkala (1), Juha Saari (3), Julian Bosch (2), Julien Rochefort (5275), Jurrien van Deijk (4), Justin Jansen (139), K.D. However, we could not get our hands on a single recording of these birds. Deeper call notes "chup, chup" subtly different from Red Crossbill. We have only some low quality recordings of ECs from birds which likely belong to this population. We (Julien Rochefort and Ralph Martin) analysed these recordings and clustered the found calls into call types. Above the calls, we wrote numbers to clarify, which call belongs to which pair member (1 or 2). This call type occurs everywhere in Europe, but nowhere common. Figure 41: Group of N8 at a drinking site in southern Germany, November 2015, Figure 42: FCs of N8. Included are recordings from Iceland to Japan, from Norway to Morocco, from remote regions of China and the Siberian forests. FCs of two pairs and a further individual, all of call type N1, Figure 67: ECs of N13 (in background: Blackbird (Turdus merula), Short-toed Treecreeper (, Figure 71: FCs of N14 (in background: Robin (Erithacus rubecula), Coal Tit (Periparus ater), Nutcracker (, Figure 72: ECs of N14 (in background: Alpine Marmot (,, Data collection on the occurrence of the call types of the crossbills, Crossbill call types in the western Palearctic – a birder’s perspective, Types vocaux du bec-croisé dans le Paléarctique occidental – perspectives pour l’ornithologue de terrain, Postprocessing and management of sound recordings. Listen +1 more audio recording. Sweden, March 2013 © Jelmer Poelstra, Figure 97: ECs of Parrot Crossbill N21 (in background: Willow Tit (Poecile montanus), Chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs)). Spain, January 2015 © Ralph Martin, Figure 63: ECs of N12. Corsica, September 2014 © Johannes Honold, Figure 107: ECs of S2 (in background: Coal Tit (Periparus ater), Red Crossbill Type N1, and the S2 bird is also singing quietly and uttering FCs). However, begging calls change with the age of the fledglings. Therefore, they might be connected to the ‘original Cyprus Crossbill’. However, calls lack the descending ending of the call. Return to the index of the call types Work on vocalization in North America suggests that there are eight or nine discrete populations of red crossbill in that continent alone, which do not interbreed and are (like the named species) adapted to specialise in different conifer species.

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